Scripture: Romans 16

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Personal Greetings

Romans 16:1-24 (WEB) I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae, that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus, who risked their own necks for my life, to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. Greet Mary, who labored much for us. Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are notable among the apostles, who were also in Christ before me. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. 10 Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. 11 Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet them of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 12 Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord. 13 Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. 14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. 15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. 16 Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you. 17 Now I beg you, brothers, look out for those who are causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling, contrary to the doctrine which you learned, and turn away from them. 18 For those who are such don’t serve our Lord, Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by their smooth and flattering speech, they deceive the hearts of the innocent. 19 For your obedience has become known to all. I rejoice therefore over you. But I desire to have you wise in that which is good, but innocent in that which is evil. 20 And the God of peace will quickly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. 21 Timothy, my fellow worker, greets you, as do Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, my relatives. 22 I, Tertius, who write the letter, greet you in the Lord. 23 Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother. 24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all! Amen.

Questions and Answers:

1. What does it mean to “commend” someone (Romans 16:1)? The Merriam-Webster’s definition – to recommend as worthy of confidence.

2. How did Paul say Phebe should be treated (Romans 16:2)? She was to be received in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints and to be given her any help she might need for she had been a great help to many people including Paul.

3. What does it mean to “salute” someone (Romans 16:3-15) From the Merriam-Webster Dictionray: to address with expressions of kind wishes, courtesy and honor.

4. What were some of Paul’s reasons for wanting certain people to be saluted (Romans 16:3-15)? Some had risked their lives for Paul.  Some were hard workers. Some had spent time in prison with Paul.

5. What is a holy kiss (Romans 16:16)? From the website: The kiss is “holy” in that it is more than just a sign of greeting. It is physically pure and morally blameless.  A holy kiss is one that is not disingenuous or deceitful, contrary to Judas’ kiss to betray Jesus.  A holy kiss between Christians is to express brotherly love and unity.  When Jewish and Gentile Christians would greet each other with a holy kiss, the action communicated an acceptance and close fellowship.   

6. What did Paul urge the brethren to watch out for and why (Romans 16:17-18)? Paul urged the brethren to watch out for those who caused divisions and were putting obstacles in their way that were contrary to the teaching they had learned. Because such people were not serving the Lord but their own appetites. By smooth talk and flattery they deceived the minds of naïve people.

7. About what did Paul want the brethren to be wise and innocent (Romans 16:19)? Paul wanted them to be wise about what was good and innocent about what was evil.

8. Whose head did Paul say would be crushed and by whom would it be crushed (Romans 16:20)? The God of peace would soon crush satan under His feet.


Romans 16:25-27 (NLT) 25 Now all glory to God, who is able to make you strong, just as my Good News says. This message about Jesus Christ has revealed His plan for you Gentiles, a plan kept secret from the beginning of time. 26 But now as the prophets foretold and as the eternal God has commanded, this message is made known to all Gentiles everywhere, so that they too might believe and obey Him. 27 All glory to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, forever. Amen.


Ponder the above verses.  My Bible notes: Paul said it was wonderful to be alive when the mystery, God’s secret – His way of saving the Gentiles – was becoming know throughout the world. The Old Testament prophecies were coming true, and God was using Paul as His instrument to tell this Good News. (F.Y.I. these verses are not included in chapter 16 of the WEB translation used for this study.)


Romans 16:17 (NIV) I (Paul) urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned.  Keep away from them.

Romans 16:19 (NIV) … I want you to be wise about what is good and innocent about what is evil.

Romans 16:20 (NIV) The God of peace will soon crush satan under your feet.


We are to love others and praying for them.


We can love others without accepting their way of thinking, talking and acting.  That might mean praying for them but staying away from them.


Lord, I pray for all those in my family.  I pray for all those in my church family.  I pray for all my neighbors.  I pray for the salvation of all of them.  Lord, I pray we will watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in our way.  I pray we will stay away from them.  But pray for them. Lord I pray they will turn from that behavior and seek a relationship with You and other believers (Romans 16:17-18).  Lord, I pray we will be wise about what is good and innocent about what is evil (Romans 16:19).  Lord, I pray Your grace will be with us (Romans 16:20).  Lord, thank You for revealing to us Your Son Christ Jesus (Romans 16:25). Lord, I pray all nations will believe in and obey You (Romans 16:26).  To You Lord be glory forever through Jesus Christ.  AMEN (Romans 16:27).


“May you and I always and forever believe and obey God.” <>< Dona